After World War I, Fascism emerged in response to liberalism and socialism. Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler were core leaders in this ideology. Mussolini of Italy promoted Fascism as, “Everything and everyone would have to be dedicated to the service of the state, which was the legal and institutional embodiment of the power, unity, and majesty of the Italian people or nation” (p. 295). Hitler of Germany held similar values of the state always being above the individual, and their lives devoted to the service of the state. Nationalism was key for these two countries, “The desire to preserve and strengthen this unity played a large part in the rise of Italian fascism and German Nazism” (p. 296). They believed nations should be distinct and the people of one nation should be united into its own political unity or nation-state.
Chapter 49, Nation and Race, show a major difference between the two forces, was the element of race. Nazis believed the Aryan race to be superior, “master race” that was destined to destroy all other races, especially targeting the Jewish people. They believed the Jews appeared to be smart but only because they were educated by foreigners. They believed that Jewish people had no true culture and just imitated others, one reasons because they never had a territory or state. This excerpt even refers to the Jewish people as parasites, people that just occupy a nations territory and sits there that it is so hard to drive them out.
Chapter 47, The Doctrine of Fascism shares a fundamental idea of this force “The man of Fascism is an individual who is nation and fatherland, which is a moral law, binding together individuals and the generations into a tradition and mission, suppressing the instinct for a life enclosed within the brief round of pleasure in order to restore within duty a higher life free from the limits of time and space; a life in which the individual, through the denial of himself, through the sacrifice of his own private interests, through death itself, realizes that completely spiritual existence in which his value as a man lies” (p. 305) Emphasis is placed on all individuals of the state coming together to unite and serve their nation over their own selves, race plays no specific role here, “Even the Fascist does in fact love his neighbor” (p. 308).